The upper extremity is a term used to define the upper limb. This includes the shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist and hand. The hand is a very complex part of the body, and all of the parts of the upper extremity are essential to functioning hands. Within the upper extremity, there are bones, joints, muscles, nerves, vessels and tendons that tie all of the parts together. Learn more about the anatomy of the upper extremity using the links in this section. You can also visit our photo gallery of anatomy photos.
Few structures of the human anatomy are as unique as the hand. The hand needs to be mobile in order to position the fingers and thumb. Adequate strength forms the basis for normal hand function. The hand also must be coordinated to perform fine motor tasks with precision. The structures that form and move the hand require proper alignment and control in order for normal hand function to occur. The front, or palm-side, of the hand is referred to as the palmar side.
Extensor pollicis longus muscle
The hand contains a complex range of structures which permit a wide variety of movements, many of which are essential for day-to-day tasks. In this article we will first look at the joints within the hand and the movements they allow to then further understand the fascia, ligaments and tendons in the hand. The palmar fascia consists of fibrous connective tissue which thickens in the centre of the hand forming the palmar aponeurosis which is continuous with the palmaris longus tendon and flexor retinaculum.
The hand is composed of many different bones, muscles, and ligaments that allow for a large amount of movement and dexterity. There are 3 major types of bones in the hand itself, including:. The 14 bones that are found in the fingers of each hand and also in the toes of each foot. Each finger has 3 phalanges the distal, middle, and proximal ; the thumb only has 2. Carpal bones.